Source code for psychopy.visual.window

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

"""A class representing a window for displaying one or more stimuli"""

# Part of the PsychoPy library
# Copyright (C) 2002-2018 Jonathan Peirce (C) 2019 Open Science Tools Ltd.
# Distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL).

from __future__ import absolute_import, division, print_function

import ctypes
import os
import sys
import weakref
import atexit
from itertools import product

from builtins import map
from builtins import object
from builtins import range
from builtins import str
from past.builtins import basestring
from collections import deque

from psychopy.contrib.lazy_import import lazy_import
from psychopy import colors
import math
from psychopy.clock import monotonicClock

# try to find avbin (we'll overload pyglet's load_library tool and then
# add some paths)
haveAvbin = False

# on windows try to load avbin now (other libs can interfere)
if sys.platform == 'win32':
    # make sure we also check in SysWOW64 if on 64-bit windows
    if 'C:\\Windows\\SysWOW64' not in os.environ['PATH']:
        os.environ['PATH'] += ';C:\\Windows\\SysWOW64'

    try:
        from pyglet.media import avbin
        haveAvbin = True
    except ImportError:
        haveAvbin = False
        # either avbin isn't installed or scipy.stats has been imported
        # (prevents avbin loading)
    except AttributeError:
        # avbin is not found, causing exception in pyglet 1.2??
        # (running psychopy 1.81 standalone on windows 7):
        #
        # File "C:\Program Files (x86)\PsychoPy2\lib\site-packages\
        #           pyglet\media\avbin.py", line 158, in <module>
        # av.avbin_get_version.restype = ctypes.c_int
        # AttributeError: 'NoneType' object has no attribute
        # 'avbin_get_version'
        haveAvbin = False
    except Exception:
        # WindowsError on some systems
        # AttributeError if using avbin5 from pyglet 1.2?
        haveAvbin = False

    # for pyglet 1.3
    if not haveAvbin:
        try:
            from pyglet.media.sources import avbin
            haveAvbin = True
        except ImportError:
            haveAvbin = False
        except AttributeError:
            haveAvbin = False
        except Exception:
            haveAvbin = False

import psychopy  # so we can get the __path__
from psychopy import core, platform_specific, logging, prefs, monitors
import psychopy.event
from . import backends

# tools must only be imported *after* event or MovieStim breaks on win32
# (JWP has no idea why!)
from psychopy.tools.attributetools import attributeSetter, setAttribute
from psychopy.tools.arraytools import val2array
from psychopy.tools.monitorunittools import convertToPix
import psychopy.tools.viewtools as viewtools
import psychopy.tools.gltools as gltools
from .text import TextStim
from .grating import GratingStim
from .helpers import setColor
from . import globalVars

try:
    from PIL import Image
except ImportError:
    import Image

import numpy

from psychopy.core import rush

reportNDroppedFrames = 5  # stop raising warning after this

# import pyglet.gl, pyglet.window, pyglet.image, pyglet.font, pyglet.event
from . import shaders as _shaders
try:
    from pyglet import media
    havePygletMedia = True
except Exception:
    havePygletMedia = False

# lazy_import puts pygame into the namespace but delays import until needed
lazy_import(globals(), "import pygame")

DEBUG = False
IOHUB_ACTIVE = False
retinaContext = None  # only needed for retina-ready displays


class OpenWinList(list):
    """Class to keep keep track of windows that have been opened.

    Uses a list of weak references so that we don't stop the window
    being deleted.

    """
    def append(self, item):
        list.append(self, weakref.ref(item))

    def remove(self, item):
        for ref in self:
            obj = ref()
            if obj is None or item == obj:
                list.remove(self, ref)


openWindows = core.openWindows = OpenWinList()  # core needs this for wait()


[docs]class Window(object): """Used to set up a context in which to draw objects, using either `pyglet <http://www.pyglet.org>`_, `pygame <http://www.pygame.org>`_, or `glfw <https://www.glfw.org>`_. The pyglet backend allows multiple windows to be created, allows the user to specify which screen to use (if more than one is available, duh!) and allows movies to be rendered. The GLFW backend is a new addition which provides most of the same features as pyglet, but provides greater flexibility for complex display configurations. Pygame may still work for you but it's officially deprecated in this project (we won't be fixing pygame-specific bugs). """ def __init__(self, size=(800, 600), pos=None, color=(0, 0, 0), colorSpace='rgb', rgb=None, dkl=None, lms=None, fullscr=None, allowGUI=None, monitor=None, bitsMode=None, winType=None, units=None, gamma=None, blendMode='avg', screen=0, viewScale=None, viewPos=None, viewOri=0.0, waitBlanking=True, allowStencil=False, multiSample=False, numSamples=2, stereo=False, name='window1', checkTiming=True, useFBO=False, useRetina=True, autoLog=True, gammaErrorPolicy='raise', bpc=(8, 8, 8), depthBits=8, stencilBits=8, *args, **kwargs): """ These attributes can only be set at initialization. See further down for a list of attributes which can be changed after initialization of the Window, e.g. color, colorSpace, gamma etc. Parameters ---------- size : `array-like` of `int` Size of the window in pixels [x, y]. pos : `array-like` of `int` Location of the top-left corner of the window on the screen [x, y]. color : `array-like` of `float` Color of background as [r, g, b] list or single value. Each gun can take values between -1.0 and 1.0. fullscr : `bool` or `None` Create a window in 'full-screen' mode. Better timing can be achieved in full-screen mode. allowGUI : `bool` or `None` If set to False, window will be drawn with no frame and no buttons to close etc., use `None` for value from preferences. winType : `str` or `None` Set the window type or back-end to use. If `None` then PsychoPy will revert to user/site preferences. monitor : :obj:`~psychopy.monitors.Monitor` or `None` The monitor to be used during the experiment. If `None` a default monitor profile will be used. units : `str` or `None` Defines the default units of stimuli drawn in the window (can be overridden by each stimulus). Values can be *None*, 'height' (of the window), 'norm' (normalised), 'deg', 'cm', 'pix'. See :ref:`units` for explanation of options. screen : `int` Specifies the physical screen that stimuli will appear on ('pyglet' and 'glfw' `winType` only). Values can be >0 if more than one screen is present. viewScale : `array-like` of `float` or `None` Scaling factors [x, y] to apply custom scaling to the current units of the :class:`~psychopy.visual.Window` instance. viewPos : `array-like` of `float` or `None` If not `None`, redefines the origin within the window, in the units of the window. Values outside the borders will be clamped to lie on the border. viewOri : `float` A single value determining the orientation of the view in degrees. waitBlanking : `bool` or `None` After a call to :py:attr:`~Window.flip()` should we wait for the blank before the script continues. bitsMode : DEPRECATED in 1.80.02. Use BitsSharp class from pycrsltd instead. checkTiming : `bool` Whether to calculate frame duration on initialization. Estimated duration is saved in :py:attr:`~Window.monitorFramePeriod`. allowStencil : `bool` When set to `True`, this allows operations that use the OpenGL stencil buffer (notably, allowing the :class:`~psychopy.visual.Aperture` to be used). multiSample : `bool` If `True` and your graphics driver supports multisample buffers, multiple color samples will be taken per-pixel, providing an anti-aliased image through spatial filtering. This setting cannot be changed after opening a window. Only works with 'pyglet' and 'glfw' `winTypes`, and `useFBO` is `False`. numSamples : `int` A single value specifying the number of samples per pixel if multisample is enabled. The higher the number, the better the image quality, but can delay frame flipping. The largest number of samples is determined by ``GL_MAX_SAMPLES``, usually 16 or 32 on newer hardware, will crash if number is invalid. stereo : `bool` If `True` and your graphics card supports quad buffers then this will be enabled. You can switch between left and right-eye scenes for drawing operations using :py:attr:`~psychopy.visual.Window.setBuffer()`. useRetina : `bool` In PsychoPy >1.85.3 this should always be `True` as pyglet (or Apple) no longer allows us to create a non-retina display. NB when you use Retina display the initial win size request will be in the larger pixels but subsequent use of ``units='pix'`` should refer to the tiny Retina pixels. Window.size will give the actual size of the screen in Retina pixels. gammaErrorPolicy: `str` If `raise`, an error is raised if the gamma table is unable to be retrieved or set. If `warn`, a warning is raised instead. If `ignore`, neither an error nor a warning are raised. bpc : array_like or int Bits per color (BPC) for the back buffer as a tuple to specify bit depths for each color channel separately (red, green, blue), or a single value to set all of them to the same value. Valid values depend on the output color depth of the display (screen) the window is set to use and the system graphics configuration. By default, it is assumed the display has 8-bits per color (8, 8, 8). Behaviour may be undefined for non-fullscreen windows, or if multiple screens are attached with varying color output depths. depthBits : int, Back buffer depth bits. Default is 8, but can be set higher (eg. 24) if drawing 3D stimuli to minimize artifacts such a 'Z-fighting'. stencilBits : int Back buffer stencil bits. Default is 8. Notes ----- * Some parameters (e.g. units) can now be given default values in the user/site preferences and these will be used if `None` is given here. If you do specify a value here it will take precedence over preferences. Attributes ---------- size : array-like (float) Dimensions of the window's drawing area/buffer in pixels [w, h]. monitorFramePeriod : float Refresh rate of the display if ``checkTiming=True`` on window instantiation. """ # what local vars are defined (these are the init params) for use by # __repr__ self._initParams = dir() self._closed = False self.backend = None # this will be set later for unecess in ['self', 'checkTiming', 'rgb', 'dkl', ]: self._initParams.remove(unecess) # Check autoLog value if autoLog not in (True, False): raise ValueError( 'autoLog must be either True or False for visual.Window') self.autoLog = False # to suppress log msg during init self.name = name self.clientSize = numpy.array(size, numpy.int) # size of window, not buffer self.pos = pos # this will get overridden once the window is created self.winHandle = None self.useFBO = useFBO self.useRetina = useRetina and sys.platform == 'darwin' if gammaErrorPolicy not in ['raise', 'warn', 'ignore']: raise ValueError('Unexpected `gammaErrorPolicy`') self.gammaErrorPolicy = gammaErrorPolicy self._toLog = [] self._toCall = [] # settings for the monitor: local settings (if available) override # monitor # if we have a monitors.Monitor object (psychopy 0.54 onwards) # convert to a Monitor object if not monitor: self.monitor = monitors.Monitor('__blank__', autoLog=autoLog) elif isinstance(monitor, basestring): self.monitor = monitors.Monitor(monitor, autoLog=autoLog) elif hasattr(monitor, 'keys'): # convert into a monitor object self.monitor = monitors.Monitor('temp', currentCalib=monitor, verbose=False, autoLog=autoLog) else: self.monitor = monitor # otherwise monitor will just be a dict self.scrWidthCM = self.monitor.getWidth() self.scrDistCM = self.monitor.getDistance() scrSize = self.monitor.getSizePix() if scrSize is None: self.scrWidthPIX = None else: self.scrWidthPIX = scrSize[0] if fullscr is None: fullscr = prefs.general['fullscr'] self._isFullScr = fullscr if units is None: units = prefs.general['units'] self.units = units if allowGUI is None: allowGUI = prefs.general['allowGUI'] self.allowGUI = allowGUI self.screen = screen self.stereo = stereo # use quad buffer if requested (and if possible) # enable multisampling self.multiSample = multiSample self.numSamples = numSamples # load color conversion matrices self.dkl_rgb = self.monitor.getDKL_RGB() self.lms_rgb = self.monitor.getLMS_RGB() # Projection and view matrices, these can be lists if multiple views are # being used. # NB - attribute checks needed for Rift compatibility if not hasattr(self, '_viewMatrix'): self._viewMatrix = numpy.identity(4, dtype=numpy.float32) if not hasattr(self, '_projectionMatrix'): self._projectionMatrix = viewtools.orthoProjectionMatrix( -1, 1, -1, 1, -1, 1, dtype=numpy.float32) # set screen color self.__dict__['colorSpace'] = colorSpace if rgb is not None: logging.warning("Use of rgb arguments to stimuli are deprecated. " "Please use color and colorSpace args instead") color = rgb colorSpace = 'rgb' elif dkl is not None: logging.warning("Use of dkl arguments to stimuli are deprecated. " "Please use color and colorSpace args instead") color = dkl colorSpace = 'dkl' elif lms is not None: logging.warning("Use of lms arguments to stimuli are deprecated. " "Please use color and colorSpace args instead") color = lms colorSpace = 'lms' self.setColor(color, colorSpace=colorSpace, log=False) self.allowStencil = allowStencil # check whether FBOs are supported if blendMode == 'add' and not self.useFBO: logging.warning('User requested a blendmode of "add" but ' 'window requires useFBO=True') # resort to the simpler blending without float rendering self.__dict__['blendMode'] = 'avg' else: self.__dict__['blendMode'] = blendMode # then set up gl context and then call self.setBlendMode # setup context and openGL() if winType is None: # choose the default windowing winType = prefs.general['winType'] self.winType = winType # setup the context self.backend = backends.getBackend(win=self, bpc=bpc, depthBits=depthBits, stencilBits=stencilBits, *args, **kwargs) self.winHandle = self.backend.winHandle global GL GL = self.backend.GL # check whether shaders are supported # also will need to check for ARB_float extension, # but that should be done after context is created self._haveShaders = self.backend.shadersSupported self._setupGL() self.blendMode = self.blendMode # parameters for transforming the overall view self.viewScale = val2array(viewScale) if self.viewPos is not None and self.units is None: raise ValueError('You must define the window units to use viewPos') self.viewPos = val2array(viewPos, withScalar=False) self.viewOri = float(viewOri) if self.viewOri != 0. and self.viewPos is not None: msg = "Window: viewPos & viewOri are currently incompatible" raise NotImplementedError(msg) # Code to allow iohub to know id of any psychopy windows created # so kb and mouse event filtering by window id can be supported. # # If an iohubConnection is active, give this window os handle to # to the ioHub server. If windows were already created before the # iohub was active, also send them to iohub. # if IOHUB_ACTIVE: from psychopy.iohub.client import ioHubConnection if ioHubConnection.ACTIVE_CONNECTION: winhwnds = [] for w in openWindows: winhwnds.append(w()._hw_handle) if self.winHandle not in winhwnds: winhwnds.append(self._hw_handle) conn = ioHubConnection.ACTIVE_CONNECTION conn.registerWindowHandles(*winhwnds) # near and far clipping planes self._nearClip = 0.1 self._farClip = 100.0 # 3D rendering related attributes self.frontFace = 'ccw' self.depthFunc = 'less' self.depthMask = False self.cullFace = False self.cullFaceMode = 'back' self.draw3d = False # scene light sources self._lights = [] self._useLights = False self._nLights = 0 self._ambientLight = numpy.array([0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0], dtype=numpy.float32) # stereo rendering settings, set later by the user self._eyeOffset = 0.0 self._convergeOffset = 0.0 # gamma self.bits = None # this may change in a few lines time! self.__dict__['gamma'] = gamma self._setupGamma(gamma) # setup bits++ if needed. NB The new preferred method is for this # to be handled by the bits class instead. (we pass the Window to # bits not passing bits to the window) if bitsMode is not None: logging.warn("Use of Window(bitsMode=******) is deprecated. See " "the Coder>Demos>Hardware demo for new methods") self.bitsMode = bitsMode # could be [None, 'fast', 'slow'] logging.warn("calling Window(...,bitsMode='fast') is deprecated." " XXX provide further info") from psychopy.hardware.crs.bits import BitsPlusPlus self.bits = self.interface = BitsPlusPlus(self) self.haveBits = True if (hasattr(self.monitor, 'linearizeLums') or hasattr(self.monitor, 'lineariseLums')): # rather than a gamma value we could use bits++ and provide a # complete linearised lookup table using # monitor.linearizeLums(lumLevels) self.__dict__['gamma'] = None self.frameClock = core.Clock() # from psycho/core self.frames = 0 # frames since last fps calc self.movieFrames = [] # list of captured frames (Image objects) self.recordFrameIntervals = False # Be able to omit the long timegap that follows each time turn it off self.recordFrameIntervalsJustTurnedOn = False self.nDroppedFrames = 0 self.frameIntervals = [] self._frameTimes = deque(maxlen=1000) # 1000 keeps overhead low self._toDraw = [] self._toDrawDepths = [] self._eventDispatchers = [] self.lastFrameT = core.getTime() self.waitBlanking = waitBlanking # set the swap interval if using GLFW if self.winType == 'glfw': self.backend.setSwapInterval(int(waitBlanking)) self.refreshThreshold = 1.0 # initial val needed by flip() # over several frames with no drawing self._monitorFrameRate = None # for testing when to stop drawing a stim: self.monitorFramePeriod = 0.0 if checkTiming: self._monitorFrameRate = self.getActualFrameRate() if self._monitorFrameRate is not None: self.monitorFramePeriod = 1.0 / self._monitorFrameRate else: self.monitorFramePeriod = 1.0 / 60 # assume a flat panel? self.refreshThreshold = self.monitorFramePeriod * 1.2 openWindows.append(self) self.autoLog = autoLog if self.autoLog: logging.exp("Created %s = %s" % (self.name, str(self))) # Make sure this window's close method is called when exiting, even in # the event of an error we should be able to restore the original gamma # table. Note that a reference to this window object will live in this # function, preventing it from being garbage collected. def close_on_exit(): if self._closed is False: self.close() atexit.register(close_on_exit) def __del__(self): if self._closed is False: self.close() def __enter__(self): return self def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_value, traceback): if not self._closed: self.close() def __str__(self): className = 'Window' paramStrings = [] for param in self._initParams: if hasattr(self, param): paramStrings.append("%s=%s" % (param, repr(getattr(self, param)))) else: paramStrings.append("%s=UNKNOWN" % (param)) # paramStrings = ["%s=%s" %(param, getattr(self, param)) # for param in self._initParams] params = ", ".join(paramStrings) s = "%s(%s)" % (className, params) return s @attributeSetter def units(self, value): """*None*, 'height' (of the window), 'norm', 'deg', 'cm', 'pix' Defines the default units of stimuli initialized in the window. I.e. if you change units, already initialized stimuli won't change their units. Can be overridden by each stimulus, if units is specified on initialization. See :ref:`units` for explanation of options. """ self.__dict__['units'] = value def setUnits(self, value, log=True): setAttribute(self, 'units', value, log=log) @attributeSetter def viewPos(self, value): """The origin of the window onto which stimulus-objects are drawn. The value should be given in the units defined for the window. NB: Never change a single component (x or y) of the origin, instead replace the viewPos-attribute in one shot, e.g.:: win.viewPos = [new_xval, new_yval] # This is the way to do it win.viewPos[0] = new_xval # DO NOT DO THIS! Errors will result. """ self.__dict__['viewPos'] = value if value is not None: # let setter take care of normalisation setattr(self, '_viewPosNorm', value) @attributeSetter def _viewPosNorm(self, value): """Normalised value of viewPos, hidden from user view.""" # first convert to pixels, then normalise to window units viewPos_pix = convertToPix([0, 0], list(value), units=self.units, win=self)[:2] viewPos_norm = viewPos_pix / (self.size / 2.0) # Clip to +/- 1; should going out-of-window raise an exception? viewPos_norm = numpy.clip(viewPos_norm, a_min=-1., a_max=1.) self.__dict__['_viewPosNorm'] = viewPos_norm def setViewPos(self, value, log=True): setAttribute(self, 'viewPos', value, log=log) @attributeSetter def fullscr(self, value): """Set whether fullscreen mode is `True` or `False` (not all backends can toggle an open window). """ self.backend.setFullScr(value) self.__dict__['fullscr'] = value self._isFullScr = value @attributeSetter def waitBlanking(self, value): """After a call to :py:attr:`~Window.flip()` should we wait for the blank before the script continues. """ self.__dict__['waitBlanking'] = value @attributeSetter def recordFrameIntervals(self, value): """Record time elapsed per frame. Provides accurate measures of frame intervals to determine whether frames are being dropped. The intervals are the times between calls to :py:attr:`~Window.flip()`. Set to `True` only during the time-critical parts of the script. Set this to `False` while the screen is not being updated, i.e., during any slow, non-frame-time-critical sections of your code, including inter-trial-intervals, ``event.waitkeys()``, ``core.wait()``, or ``image.setImage()``. Examples -------- Enable frame interval recording, successive frame intervals will be stored:: win.recordFrameIntervals = True Frame intervals can be saved by calling the :py:attr:`~Window.saveFrameIntervals` method:: win.saveFrameIntervals() """ # was off, and now turning it on self.recordFrameIntervalsJustTurnedOn = bool( not self.recordFrameIntervals and value) self.__dict__['recordFrameIntervals'] = value self.frameClock.reset() def setRecordFrameIntervals(self, value=True, log=None): """Usually you can use 'stim.attribute = value' syntax instead, but use this method if you need to suppress the log message. """ setAttribute(self, 'recordFrameIntervals', value, log)
[docs] def saveFrameIntervals(self, fileName=None, clear=True): """Save recorded screen frame intervals to disk, as comma-separated values. Parameters ---------- fileName : *None* or str *None* or the filename (including path if necessary) in which to store the data. If None then 'lastFrameIntervals.log' will be used. clear : bool Clear buffer frames intervals were stored after saving. Default is `True`. """ if not fileName: fileName = 'lastFrameIntervals.log' if len(self.frameIntervals): intervalStr = str(self.frameIntervals)[1:-1] f = open(fileName, 'w') f.write(intervalStr) f.close() if clear: self.frameIntervals = [] self.frameClock.reset()
def _setCurrent(self): """Make this window's OpenGL context current. If called on a window whose context is current, the function will return immediately. This reduces the number of redundant calls if no context switch is required. If ``useFBO=True``, the framebuffer is bound after the context switch. """ # don't configure if we haven't changed context if not self.backend.setCurrent(): return # if we are using an FBO, bind it if hasattr(self, 'frameBuffer'): GL.glBindFramebufferEXT(GL.GL_FRAMEBUFFER_EXT, self.frameBuffer) GL.glReadBuffer(GL.GL_COLOR_ATTACHMENT0_EXT) GL.glDrawBuffer(GL.GL_COLOR_ATTACHMENT0_EXT) # NB - check if we need these GL.glActiveTexture(GL.GL_TEXTURE0) GL.glBindTexture(GL.GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0) # set these to match the current window or buffer's settings fbw, fbh = self.frameBufferSize self.viewport = self.scissor = [0, 0, fbw, fbh] self.scissorTest = True # apply the view transforms for this window #self.applyEyeTransform() def onResize(self, width, height): """A default resize event handler. This default handler updates the GL viewport to cover the entire window and sets the ``GL_PROJECTION`` matrix to be orthogonal in window space. The bottom-left corner is (0, 0) and the top-right corner is the width and height of the :class:`~psychopy.visual.Window` in pixels. Override this event handler with your own to create another projection, for example in perspective. """ # this has to be external so that pyglet can use it too without # circular referencing self.backend.onResize(width, height)
[docs] def logOnFlip(self, msg, level, obj=None): """Send a log message that should be time-stamped at the next :py:attr:`~Window.flip()` command. Parameters ---------- msg : str The message to be logged. level : int The level of importance for the message. obj : object, optional The python object that might be associated with this message if desired. """ self._toLog.append({'msg': msg, 'level': level, 'obj': repr(obj)})
[docs] def callOnFlip(self, function, *args, **kwargs): """Call a function immediately after the next :py:attr:`~Window.flip()` command. The first argument should be the function to call, the following args should be used exactly as you would for your normal call to the function (can use ordered arguments or keyword arguments as normal). e.g. If you have a function that you would normally call like this:: pingMyDevice(portToPing, channel=2, level=0) then you could call :py:attr:`~Window.callOnFlip()` to have the function call synchronized with the frame flip like this:: win.callOnFlip(pingMyDevice, portToPing, channel=2, level=0) """ self._toCall.append({'function': function, 'args': args, 'kwargs': kwargs})
[docs] def timeOnFlip(self, obj, attrib): """Retrieves the time on the next flip and assigns it to the `attrib` for this `obj`. Parameters ---------- obj : dict or object A mutable object (usually a dict of class instance). attrib : str Key or attribute of `obj` to assign the flip time to. Examples -------- Assign time on flip to the ``tStartRefresh`` key of ``myTimingDict``:: win.getTimeOnFlip(myTimingDict, 'tStartRefresh') """ self.callOnFlip(self._assignFlipTime, obj, attrib)
[docs] def getFutureFlipTime(self, targetTime=0, clock=None): """The expected time of the next screen refresh. This is currently calculated as win._lastFrameTime + refreshInterval Parameters ----------- targetTime: float The delay *from now* for which you want the flip time. 0 will give the because that the earliest we can achieve. 0.15 will give the schedule flip time that gets as close to 150 ms as possible clock : None, 'ptb', 'now' or any Clock object If True then the time returned is compatible with ptb.GetSecs() verbose: bool Set to True to view the calculations along the way """ baseClock = logging.defaultClock if not self.monitorFramePeriod: raise AttributeError("Cannot calculate nextFlipTime due to unknown " "monitorFramePeriod") lastFlip = self._frameTimes[-1] # unlike win.lastFrameTime this is always on timeNext = lastFlip + self.monitorFramePeriod now = baseClock.getTime() if (now + targetTime) > timeNext: # target is more than 1 frame in future extraFrames = math.ceil((now + targetTime - timeNext)/self.monitorFramePeriod) thisT = timeNext + extraFrames*self.monitorFramePeriod else: thisT = timeNext # convert back to target clock timebase if clock=='ptb': # add back the lastResetTime (that's the clock difference) output = thisT + baseClock.getLastResetTime() elif clock=='now': # time from now is easy! output = thisT - now elif clock: output = thisT + baseClock.getLastResetTime() - clock.getLastResetTime() else: output = thisT return output
def _assignFlipTime(self, obj, attrib): """Helper function to assign the time of last flip to the obj.attrib Parameters ---------- obj : dict or object A mutable object (usually a dict of class instance). attrib : str Key or attribute of ``obj`` to assign the flip time to. """ if hasattr(obj, attrib): setattr(obj, attrib, self._frameTime) elif isinstance(obj, dict): obj[attrib] = self._frameTime else: raise TypeError("Window.getTimeOnFlip() should be called with an " "object and its attribute or a dict and its key. " "In this case it was called with obj={}" .format(repr(obj))) @classmethod def dispatchAllWindowEvents(cls): """ Dispatches events for all pyglet windows. Used by iohub 2.0 psychopy kb event integration. """ Window.backend.dispatchEvents()
[docs] def flip(self, clearBuffer=True): """Flip the front and back buffers after drawing everything for your frame. (This replaces the :py:attr:`~Window.update()` method, better reflecting what is happening underneath). Parameters ---------- clearBuffer : bool, optional Clear the draw buffer after flipping. Default is `True`. Returns ------- float or None Wall-clock time in seconds the flip completed. Returns `None` if :py:attr:`~Window.waitBlanking` is `False`. Notes ----- * The time returned when :py:attr:`~Window.waitBlanking` is `True` corresponds to when the graphics driver releases the draw buffer to accept draw commands again. This time is usually close to the vertical sync signal of the display. Examples -------- Results in a clear screen after flipping:: win.flip(clearBuffer=True) The screen is not cleared (so represent the previous screen):: win.flip(clearBuffer=False) """ if self._toDraw: for thisStim in self._toDraw: thisStim.draw() else: self.backend.setCurrent() # set these to match the current window or buffer's settings self.viewport = self.scissor = \ (0, 0, self.frameBufferSize[0], self.frameBufferSize[1]) if not self.scissorTest: self.scissorTest = True # clear the projection and modelview matrix for FBO blit GL.glMatrixMode(GL.GL_PROJECTION) GL.glLoadIdentity() GL.glOrtho(-1, 1, -1, 1, -1, 1) GL.glMatrixMode(GL.GL_MODELVIEW) GL.glLoadIdentity() # disable lighting self.useLights = False flipThisFrame = self._startOfFlip() if self.useFBO and flipThisFrame: self.draw3d = False # disable 3d drawing self._prepareFBOrender() # need blit the framebuffer object to the actual back buffer # unbind the framebuffer as the render target GL.glBindFramebufferEXT(GL.GL_FRAMEBUFFER_EXT, 0) GL.glDisable(GL.GL_BLEND) stencilOn = self.stencilTest self.stencilTest = False if self.bits is not None: self.bits._prepareFBOrender() # before flipping need to copy the renderBuffer to the # frameBuffer GL.glActiveTexture(GL.GL_TEXTURE0) GL.glEnable(GL.GL_TEXTURE_2D) GL.glBindTexture(GL.GL_TEXTURE_2D, self.frameTexture) GL.glColor3f(1.0, 1.0, 1.0) # glColor multiplies with texture GL.glColorMask(True, True, True, True) self._renderFBO() GL.glEnable(GL.GL_BLEND) self._finishFBOrender() # call this before flip() whether FBO was used or not self._afterFBOrender() self.backend.swapBuffers(flipThisFrame) if self.useFBO and flipThisFrame: # set rendering back to the framebuffer object GL.glBindFramebufferEXT( GL.GL_FRAMEBUFFER_EXT, self.frameBuffer) GL.glReadBuffer(GL.GL_COLOR_ATTACHMENT0_EXT) GL.glDrawBuffer(GL.GL_COLOR_ATTACHMENT0_EXT) # set to no active rendering texture GL.glActiveTexture(GL.GL_TEXTURE0) GL.glBindTexture(GL.GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0) if stencilOn: self.stencilTest = True # rescale, reposition, & rotate GL.glMatrixMode(GL.GL_MODELVIEW) GL.glLoadIdentity() if self.viewScale is not None: GL.glScalef(self.viewScale[0], self.viewScale[1], 1) absScaleX = abs(self.viewScale[0]) absScaleY = abs(self.viewScale[1]) else: absScaleX, absScaleY = 1, 1 if self.viewPos is not None: # here we must use normalised units in _viewPosNorm, # see the corresponding attributeSetter above normRfPosX = self._viewPosNorm[0] / absScaleX normRfPosY = self._viewPosNorm[1] / absScaleY GL.glTranslatef(normRfPosX, normRfPosY, 0.0) if self.viewOri: # float # the logic below for flip is partially correct, but does not # handle a nonzero viewPos flip = 1 if self.viewScale is not None: _f = self.viewScale[0] * self.viewScale[1] if _f < 0: flip = -1 GL.glRotatef(flip * self.viewOri, 0.0, 0.0, -1.0) # reset returned buffer for next frame self._endOfFlip(clearBuffer) # waitBlanking if self.waitBlanking and flipThisFrame: GL.glBegin(GL.GL_POINTS) GL.glColor4f(0, 0, 0, 0) if sys.platform == 'win32' and self.glVendor.startswith('ati'): pass else: # this corrupts text rendering on win with some ATI cards :-( GL.glVertex2i(10, 10) GL.glEnd() GL.glFinish() # get timestamp self._frameTime = now = logging.defaultClock.getTime() self._frameTimes.append(self._frameTime) # run other functions immediately after flip completes for callEntry in self._toCall: callEntry['function'](*callEntry['args'], **callEntry['kwargs']) del self._toCall[:] # do bookkeeping if self.recordFrameIntervals: self.frames += 1 deltaT = now - self.lastFrameT self.lastFrameT = now if self.recordFrameIntervalsJustTurnedOn: # don't do anything self.recordFrameIntervalsJustTurnedOn = False else: # past the first frame since turned on self.frameIntervals.append(deltaT) if deltaT > self.refreshThreshold: self.nDroppedFrames += 1 if self.nDroppedFrames < reportNDroppedFrames: txt = 't of last frame was %.2fms (=1/%i)' msg = txt % (deltaT * 1000, 1 / deltaT) logging.warning(msg, t=now) elif self.nDroppedFrames == reportNDroppedFrames: logging.warning("Multiple dropped frames have " "occurred - I'll stop bothering you " "about them!") # log events for logEntry in self._toLog: # {'msg':msg, 'level':level, 'obj':copy.copy(obj)} logging.log(msg=logEntry['msg'], level=logEntry['level'], t=now, obj=logEntry['obj']) del self._toLog[:] # keep the system awake (prevent screen-saver or sleep) platform_specific.sendStayAwake() # If self.waitBlanking is True, then return the time that # GL.glFinish() returned, set as the 'now' variable. Otherwise # return None as before # if self.waitBlanking is True: return now
def update(self): """Deprecated: use Window.flip() instead """ # clearBuffer was the original behaviour for win.update() self.flip(clearBuffer=True) def multiFlip(self, flips=1, clearBuffer=True): """Flip multiple times while maintaining the display constant. Use this method for precise timing. **WARNING:** This function should not be used. See the `Notes` section for details. Parameters ---------- flips : int, optional The number of monitor frames to flip. Floats will be rounded to integers, and a warning will be emitted. ``Window.multiFlip(flips=1)`` is equivalent to ``Window.flip()``. Defaults to `1`. clearBuffer : bool, optional Whether to clear the screen after the last flip. Defaults to `True`. Notes ----- - This function can behave unpredictably, and the PsychoPy authors recommend against using it. See https://github.com/psychopy/psychopy/issues/867 for more information. Examples -------- Example of using ``multiFlip``:: # Draws myStim1 to buffer myStim1.draw() # Show stimulus for 4 frames (90 ms at 60Hz) myWin.multiFlip(clearBuffer=False, flips=6) # Draw myStim2 "on top of" myStim1 # (because buffer was not cleared above) myStim2.draw() # Show this for 2 frames (30 ms at 60Hz) myWin.multiFlip(flips=2) # Show blank screen for 3 frames (buffer was cleared above) myWin.multiFlip(flips=3) """ if flips < 1: logging.error("flips argument for multiFlip should be " "a positive integer") if flips != int(flips): flips = int(round(flips)) logging.warning("Number of flips was not an integer; " "rounding to the next integer. Will flip " "%i times." % flips) if flips > 1 and not self.waitBlanking: logging.warning("Call to Window.multiFlip() with flips > 1 is " "unnecessary because Window.waitBlanking=False") # Do the flipping with last flip as special case for _ in range(flips - 1): self.flip(clearBuffer=False) self.flip(clearBuffer=clearBuffer)
[docs] def setBuffer(self, buffer, clear=True): """Choose which buffer to draw to ('left' or 'right'). Requires the Window to be initialised with stereo=True and requires a graphics card that supports quad buffering (e,g nVidia Quadro series) PsychoPy always draws to the back buffers, so 'left' will use ``GL_BACK_LEFT`` This then needs to be flipped once both eye's buffers have been rendered. Parameters ---------- buffer : str Buffer to draw to. Can either be 'left' or 'right'. clear : bool, optional Clear the buffer before drawing. Default is ``True``. Examples -------- Stereoscopic rendering example using quad-buffers:: win = visual.Window(...., stereo=True) while True: # clear may not actually be needed win.setBuffer('left', clear=True) # do drawing for left eye win.setBuffer('right', clear=True) # do drawing for right eye win.flip() """ if buffer == 'left': GL.glDrawBuffer(GL.GL_BACK_LEFT) elif buffer == 'right': GL.glDrawBuffer(GL.GL_BACK_RIGHT) else: raise "Unknown buffer '%s' requested in Window.setBuffer" % buffer if clear: self.clearBuffer()
[docs] def clearBuffer(self, color=True, depth=False, stencil=False): """Clear the present buffer (to which you are currently drawing) without flipping the window. Useful if you want to generate movie sequences from the back buffer without actually taking the time to flip the window. Set `color` prior to clearing to set the color to clear the color buffer to. By default, the depth buffer is cleared to a value of 1.0. Parameters ---------- color, depth, stencil : bool Buffers to clear. Examples -------- Clear the color buffer to a specified color:: win.color = (1, 0, 0) win.clearBuffer(color=True) Clear only the depth buffer, `depthMask` must be `True` or else this will have no effect. Depth mask is usually `True` by default, but may change:: win.depthMask = True win.clearBuffer(color=False, depth=True, stencil=False) """ clearBufferBits = GL.GL_NONE if color: clearBufferBits |= GL.GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT if depth: clearBufferBits |= GL.GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT if stencil: clearBufferBits |= GL.GL_STENCIL_BUFFER_BIT # reset returned buffer for next frame GL.glClear(clearBufferBits)
@property def size(self): """Size of the drawable area in pixels (w, h).""" # report clientSize until we get framebuffer size from # the backend, needs to be done properly in the future if self.backend is not None: return self.viewport[2:] else: return self.clientSize @property def frameBufferSize(self): """Size of the framebuffer in pixels (w, h).""" # Dimensions should match window size unless using a retina display return self.backend.frameBufferSize @property def aspect(self): """Aspect ratio of the current viewport (width / height).""" return self._viewport[2] / float(self._viewport[3]) @property def ambientLight(self): """Ambient light color for the scene [r, g, b, a]. Values range from 0.0 to 1.0. Only applicable if `useLights` is `True`. Examples -------- Setting the ambient light color:: win.ambientLight = [0.5, 0.5, 0.5] # don't do this!!! win.ambientLight[0] = 0.5 win.ambientLight[1] = 0.5 win.ambientLight[2] = 0.5 """ # TODO - use signed color and colorspace instead return self._ambientLight[:3] @ambientLight.setter def ambientLight(self, value): self._ambientLight[:3] = value GL.glLightModelfv(GL.GL_LIGHT_MODEL_AMBIENT, numpy.ctypeslib.as_ctypes(self._ambientLight)) @property def lights(self): """Scene lights. This is specified as an array of `~psychopy.visual.LightSource` objects. If a single value is given, it will be converted to a `list` before setting. Set `useLights` to `True` before rendering to enable lighting/shading on subsequent objects. If `lights` is `None` or an empty `list`, no lights will be enabled if `useLights=True`, however, the scene ambient light set with `ambientLight` will be still be used. Examples -------- Create a directional light source and add it to scene lights:: dirLight = gltools.LightSource((0., 1., 0.), lightType='directional') win.lights = dirLight # `win.lights` will be a list when accessed! Multiple lights can be specified by passing values as a list:: myLights = [gltools.LightSource((0., 5., 0.)), gltools.LightSource((-2., -2., 0.)) win.lights = myLights """ return self._lights @lights.setter def lights(self, value): # if None or empty list, disable all lights if value is None or not value: for index in range(self._nLights): GL.glDisable(GL.GL_LIGHT0 + index) self._nLights = 0 # set number of lights to zero self._lights = value return # set the lights and make sure it's a list if a single value was passed self._lights = value if isinstance(value, (list, tuple,)) else [value] # disable excess lights if less lights were specified this time oldNumLights = self._nLights self._nLights = len(self._lights) # number of lights enabled if oldNumLights > self._nLights: for index in range(self._nLights, oldNumLights): GL.glDisable(GL.GL_LIGHT0 + index) # Setup legacy lights, new spec shader programs should access the # `lights` attribute directly to setup lighting uniforms. # The index of the lights is defined by the order it appears in # `self._lights`. for index, light in enumerate(self._lights): enumLight = GL.GL_LIGHT0 + index # convert data in light class to ctypes #pos = numpy.ctypeslib.as_ctypes(light.pos) diffuse = numpy.ctypeslib.as_ctypes(light._diffuseRGB) specular = numpy.ctypeslib.as_ctypes(light._specularRGB) ambient = numpy.ctypeslib.as_ctypes(light._ambientRGB) # pass values to OpenGL #GL.glLightfv(enumLight, GL.GL_POSITION, pos) GL.glLightfv(enumLight, GL.GL_DIFFUSE, diffuse) GL.glLightfv(enumLight, GL.GL_SPECULAR, specular) GL.glLightfv(enumLight, GL.GL_AMBIENT, ambient) constant, linear, quadratic = light._kAttenuation GL.glLightf(enumLight, GL.GL_CONSTANT_ATTENUATION, constant) GL.glLightf(enumLight, GL.GL_LINEAR_ATTENUATION, linear) GL.glLightf(enumLight, GL.GL_QUADRATIC_ATTENUATION, quadratic) # enable the light GL.glEnable(enumLight) @property def useLights(self): """Enable scene lighting. Lights will be enabled if using legacy OpenGL lighting. Stimuli using shaders for lighting should check if `useLights` is `True` since this will have no effect on them, and disable or use a no lighting shader instead. Lights will be transformed to the current view matrix upon setting to `True`. Lights are transformed by the present `GL_MODELVIEW` matrix. Setting `useLights` will result in their positions being transformed by it. If you want lights to appear at the specified positions in world space, make sure the current matrix defines the view/eye transformation when setting `useLights=True`. This flag is reset to `False` at the beginning of each frame. Should be `False` if rendering 2D stimuli or else the colors will be incorrect. """ return self._useLights @useLights.setter def useLights(self, value): self._useLights = value # Setup legacy lights, new spec shader programs should access the # `lights` attribute directly to setup lighting uniforms. if self._useLights and self._lights: GL.glEnable(GL.GL_LIGHTING) # make sure specular lights are computed relative to eye position, # this is more realistic than the default. Does not affect shaders. GL.glLightModeli(GL.GL_LIGHT_MODEL_LOCAL_VIEWER, GL.GL_TRUE) # update light positions for current model matrix for index, light in enumerate(self._lights): enumLight = GL.GL_LIGHT0 + index pos = numpy.ctypeslib.as_ctypes(light.pos) GL.glLightfv(enumLight, GL.GL_POSITION, pos) else: # disable lights GL.glDisable(GL.GL_LIGHTING)
[docs] def updateLights(self, index=None): """Explicitly update scene lights if they were modified. This is required if modifications to objects referenced in `lights` have been changed since assignment. If you removed or added items of `lights` you must refresh all of them. Parameters ---------- index : int, optional Index of light source in `lights` to update. If `None`, all lights will be refreshed. Examples -------- Call `updateLights` if you modified lights directly like this:: win.lights[1].diffuseColor = [1., 0., 0.] win.updateLights(1) """ if self._lights is None: return # nop if there are no lights if index is None: self.lights = self._lights else: if index > len(self._lights) - 1: raise IndexError('Invalid index for `lights`.') enumLight = GL.GL_LIGHT0 + index # light object to modify light = self._lights[index] # convert data in light class to ctypes # pos = numpy.ctypeslib.as_ctypes(light.pos) diffuse = numpy.ctypeslib.as_ctypes(light.diffuse) specular = numpy.ctypeslib.as_ctypes(light.specular) ambient = numpy.ctypeslib.as_ctypes(light.ambient) # pass values to OpenGL # GL.glLightfv(enumLight, GL.GL_POSITION, pos) GL.glLightfv(enumLight, GL.GL_DIFFUSE, diffuse) GL.glLightfv(enumLight, GL.GL_SPECULAR, specular) GL.glLightfv(enumLight, GL.GL_AMBIENT, ambient)
[docs] def resetViewport(self): """Reset the viewport to cover the whole framebuffer. Set the viewport to match the dimensions of the back buffer or framebuffer (if `useFBO=True`). The scissor rectangle is also set to match the dimensions of the viewport. """ self.scissor = self.viewport = self.frameBufferSize
@property def viewport(self): """Viewport rectangle (x, y, w, h) for the current draw buffer. Values `x` and `y` define the origin, and `w` and `h` the size of the rectangle in pixels. This is typically set to cover the whole buffer, however it can be changed for applications like multi-view rendering. Stimuli will draw according to the new shape of the viewport, for instance and stimulus with position (0, 0) will be drawn at the center of the viewport, not the window. Examples -------- Constrain drawing to the left and right halves of the screen, where stimuli will be drawn centered on the new rectangle. Note that you need to set both the `viewport` and the `scissor` rectangle:: x, y, w, h = win.frameBufferSize # size of the framebuffer win.viewport = win.scissor = [x, y, w / 2.0, h] # draw left stimuli ... win.viewport = win.scissor = [x + (w / 2.0), y, w / 2.0, h] # draw right stimuli ... # restore drawing to the whole screen win.viewport = win.scissor = [x, y, w, h] """ return self._viewport @viewport.setter def viewport(self, value): self._viewport = numpy.array(value, numpy.int) GL.glViewport(*self._viewport) @property def scissor(self): """Scissor rectangle (x, y, w, h) for the current draw buffer. Values `x` and `y` define the origin, and `w` and `h` the size of the rectangle in pixels. The scissor operation is only active if `scissorTest=True`. Usually, the scissor and viewport are set to the same rectangle to prevent drawing operations from `spilling` into other regions of the screen. For instance, calling `clearBuffer` will only clear within the scissor rectangle. Setting the scissor rectangle but not the viewport will restrict drawing within the defined region (like a rectangular aperture), not changing the positions of stimuli. """ return self._scissor @scissor.setter def scissor(self, value): self._scissor = numpy.array(value, numpy.int) GL.glScissor(*self._scissor) @property def scissorTest(self): """`True` if scissor testing is enabled.""" return self._scissorTest @scissorTest.setter def scissorTest(self, value): if value is True: GL.glEnable(GL.GL_SCISSOR_TEST) elif value is False: GL.glDisable(GL.GL_SCISSOR_TEST) else: raise TypeError("Value must be boolean.") self._scissorTest = value @property def stencilTest(self): """`True` if stencil testing is enabled.""" return self._stencilTest @stencilTest.setter def stencilTest(self, value): if value is True: GL.glEnable(GL.GL_STENCIL_TEST) elif value is False: GL.glDisable(GL.GL_STENCIL_TEST) else: raise TypeError("Value must be boolean.") self._stencilTest = value @property def nearClip(self): """Distance to the near clipping plane in meters.""" return self._nearClip @nearClip.setter def nearClip(self, value): self._nearClip = value @property def farClip(self): """Distance to the far clipping plane in meters.""" return self._farClip @farClip.setter def farClip(self, value): self._farClip = value @property def projectionMatrix(self): """Projection matrix defined as a 4x4 numpy array.""" return self._projectionMatrix @projectionMatrix.setter def projectionMatrix(self, value): self._projectionMatrix = numpy.asarray(value, numpy.float32) assert self._projectionMatrix.shape == (4, 4) @property def viewMatrix(self): """View matrix defined as a 4x4 numpy array.""" return self._viewMatrix @viewMatrix.setter def viewMatrix(self, value): self._viewMatrix = numpy.asarray(value, numpy.float32) assert self._viewMatrix.shape == (4, 4) @property def eyeOffset(self): """Eye offset in centimeters. This value is used by `setPerspectiveView` to apply a lateral offset to the view, therefore it must be set prior to calling it. Use a positive offset for the right eye, and a negative one for the left. Offsets should be the distance to from the middle of the face to the center of the eye, or half the inter-ocular distance. """ return self._eyeOffset * 100.0 @eyeOffset.setter def eyeOffset(self, value): self._eyeOffset = value / 100.0 @property def convergeOffset(self): """Convergence offset from monitor in centimeters. This is value corresponds to the offset from screen plane to set the convergence plane (or point for `toe-in` projections). Positive offsets move the plane farther away from the viewer, while negative offsets nearer. This value is used by `setPerspectiveView` and should be set before calling it to take effect. Notes ----- * This value is only applicable for `setToeIn` and `setOffAxisView`. """ return self._convergeOffset * 100.0 @convergeOffset.setter def convergeOffset(self, value): self._convergeOffset = value / 100.0
[docs] def setOffAxisView(self, applyTransform=True, clearDepth=True): """Set an off-axis projection. Create an off-axis projection for subsequent rendering calls. Sets the `viewMatrix` and `projectionMatrix` accordingly so the scene origin is on the screen plane. If `eyeOffset` is correct and the view distance and screen size is defined in the monitor configuration, the resulting view will approximate `ortho-stereo` viewing. The convergence plane can be adjusted by setting `convergeOffset`. By default, the convergence plane is set to the screen plane. Any points on the screen plane will have zero disparity. Parameters ---------- applyTransform : bool Apply transformations after computing them in immediate mode. Same as calling :py:attr:`~Window.applyEyeTransform()` afterwards. clearDepth : bool, optional Clear the depth buffer. """ scrDistM = 0.5 if self.scrDistCM is None else self.scrDistCM / 100.0 scrWidthM = 0.5 if self.scrWidthCM is None else self.scrWidthCM / 100.0 # Not in full screen mode? Need to compute the dimensions of the display # area to ensure disparities are correct even when in windowed-mode. aspect = self.size[0] / self.size[1] if not self._isFullScr: scrWidthM = (self.size[0] / self.scrWidthPIX) * scrWidthM frustum = viewtools.computeFrustum( scrWidthM, # width of screen aspect, # aspect ratio scrDistM, # distance to screen eyeOffset=self._eyeOffset, convergeOffset=self._convergeOffset, nearClip=self._nearClip, farClip=self._farClip) self._projectionMatrix = viewtools.perspectiveProjectionMatrix(*frustum) # translate away from screen self._viewMatrix = numpy.identity(4, dtype=numpy.float32) self._viewMatrix[0, 3] = -self._eyeOffset # apply eye offset self._viewMatrix[2, 3] = -scrDistM # displace scene away from viewer if applyTransform: self.applyEyeTransform(clearDepth=clearDepth)
[docs] def setToeInView(self, applyTransform=True, clearDepth=True): """Set toe-in projection. Create a toe-in projection for subsequent rendering calls. Sets the `viewMatrix` and `projectionMatrix` accordingly so the scene origin is on the screen plane. The value of `convergeOffset` will define the convergence point of the view, which is offset perpendicular to the center of the screen plane. Points falling on a vertical line at the convergence point will have zero disparity. Parameters ---------- applyTransform : bool Apply transformations after computing them in immediate mode. Same as calling :py:attr:`~Window.applyEyeTransform()` afterwards. clearDepth : bool, optional Clear the depth buffer. Notes ----- * This projection mode is only 'correct' if the viewer's eyes are converged at the convergence point. Due to perspective, this projection introduces vertical disparities which increase in magnitude with eccentricity. Use `setOffAxisView` if you want to display something the viewer can look around the screen comfortably. """ scrDistM = 0.5 if self.scrDistCM is None else self.scrDistCM / 100.0 scrWidthM = 0.5 if self.scrWidthCM is None else self.scrWidthCM / 100.0 # Not in full screen mode? Need to compute the dimensions of the display # area to ensure disparities are correct even when in windowed-mode. aspect = self.size[0] / self.size[1] if not self._isFullScr: scrWidthM = (self.size[0] / self.scrWidthPIX) * scrWidthM frustum = viewtools.computeFrustum( scrWidthM, # width of screen aspect, # aspect ratio scrDistM, # distance to screen nearClip=self._nearClip, farClip=self._farClip) self._projectionMatrix = viewtools.perspectiveProjectionMatrix(*frustum) # translate away from screen eyePos = (self._eyeOffset, 0.0, scrDistM) convergePoint = (0.0, 0.0, self.convergeOffset) self._viewMatrix = viewtools.lookAt(eyePos, convergePoint) if applyTransform: self.applyEyeTransform(clearDepth=clearDepth)
[docs] def setPerspectiveView(self, applyTransform=True, clearDepth=True): """Set the projection and view matrix to render with perspective. Matrices are computed using values specified in the monitor configuration with the scene origin on the screen plane. Calculations assume units are in meters. If `eyeOffset != 0`, the view will be transformed laterally, however the frustum shape will remain the same. Note that the values of :py:attr:`~Window.projectionMatrix` and :py:attr:`~Window.viewMatrix` will be replaced when calling this function. Parameters ---------- applyTransform : bool Apply transformations after computing them in immediate mode. Same as calling :py:attr:`~Window.applyEyeTransform()` afterwards if `False`. clearDepth : bool, optional Clear the depth buffer. """ # NB - we should eventually compute these matrices lazily since they may # not change over the course of an experiment under most circumstances. # scrDistM = 0.5 if self.scrDistCM is None else self.scrDistCM / 100.0 scrWidthM = 0.5 if self.scrWidthCM is None else self.scrWidthCM / 100.0 # Not in full screen mode? Need to compute the dimensions of the display # area to ensure disparities are correct even when in windowed-mode. aspect = self.size[0] / self.size[1] if not self._isFullScr: scrWidthM = (self.size[0] / self.scrWidthPIX) * scrWidthM frustum = viewtools.computeFrustum( scrWidthM, # width of screen aspect, # aspect ratio scrDistM, # distance to screen nearClip=self._nearClip, farClip=self._farClip) self._projectionMatrix = \ viewtools.perspectiveProjectionMatrix(*frustum, dtype=numpy.float32) # translate away from screen self._viewMatrix = numpy.identity(4, dtype=numpy.float32) self._viewMatrix[0, 3] = -self._eyeOffset # apply eye offset self._viewMatrix[2, 3] = -scrDistM # displace scene away from viewer if applyTransform: self.applyEyeTransform(clearDepth=clearDepth)
[docs] def applyEyeTransform(self, clearDepth=True): """Apply the current view and projection matrices. Matrices specified by attributes :py:attr:`~Window.viewMatrix` and :py:attr:`~Window.projectionMatrix` are applied using 'immediate mode' OpenGL functions. Subsequent drawing operations will be affected until :py:attr:`~Window.flip()` is called. All transformations in ``GL_PROJECTION`` and ``GL_MODELVIEW`` matrix stacks will be cleared (set to identity) prior to applying. Parameters ---------- clearDepth : bool Clear the depth buffer. This may be required prior to rendering 3D objects. Examples -------- Using a custom view and projection matrix:: # Must be called every frame since these values are reset after # `flip()` is called! win.viewMatrix = viewtools.lookAt( ... ) win.projectionMatrix = viewtools.perspectiveProjectionMatrix( ... ) win.applyEyeTransform() # draw 3D objects here ... """ # apply the projection and view transformations if hasattr(self, '_projectionMatrix'): GL.glMatrixMode(GL.GL_PROJECTION) GL.glLoadIdentity() projMat = self._projectionMatrix.ctypes.data_as( ctypes.POINTER(ctypes.c_float)) GL.glMultTransposeMatrixf(projMat) if hasattr(self, '_viewMatrix'): GL.glMatrixMode(GL.GL_MODELVIEW) GL.glLoadIdentity() viewMat = self._viewMatrix.ctypes.data_as( ctypes.POINTER(ctypes.c_float)) GL.glMultTransposeMatrixf(viewMat) oldDepthMask = self.depthMask if clearDepth: GL.glDepthMask(GL.GL_TRUE) GL.glClear(GL.GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT) if oldDepthMask is False: # return to old state if needed GL.glDepthMask(GL.GL_FALSE)
[docs] def resetEyeTransform(self, clearDepth=True): """Restore the default projection and view settings to PsychoPy defaults. Call this prior to drawing 2D stimuli objects (i.e. GratingStim, ImageStim, Rect, etc.) if any eye transformations were applied for the stimuli to be drawn correctly. Parameters ---------- clearDepth : bool Clear the depth buffer upon reset. This ensures successive draw commands are not affected by previous data written to the depth buffer. Default is `True`. Notes ----- * Calling :py:attr:`~Window.flip()` automatically resets the view and projection to defaults. So you don't need to call this unless you are mixing 3D and 2D stimuli. Examples -------- Going between 3D and 2D stimuli:: # 2D stimuli can be drawn before setting a perspective projection win.setPerspectiveView() # draw 3D stimuli here ... win.resetEyeTransform() # 2D stimuli can be drawn here again ... win.flip() """ # should eventually have the same effect as calling _onResize(), so we # need to add the retina mode stuff eventually if hasattr(self, '_viewMatrix'): self._viewMatrix = numpy.identity(4, dtype=numpy.float32) if hasattr(self, '_projectionMatrix'): self._projectionMatrix = viewtools.orthoProjectionMatrix( -1, 1, -1, 1, -1, 1, dtype=numpy.float32) self.applyEyeTransform(clearDepth)
[docs] def coordToRay(self, screenXY): """Convert a screen coordinate to a direction vector. Takes a screen/window coordinate and computes a vector which projects a ray from the viewpoint through it (line-of-sight). Any 3D point touching the ray will appear at the screen coordinate. Uses the current `viewport` and `projectionMatrix` to calculate the vector. The vector is in eye-space, where the origin of the scene is centered at the viewpoint and the forward direction aligned with the -Z axis. A ray of (0, 0, -1) results from a point at the very center of the screen assuming symmetric frustums. Note that if you are using a flipped/mirrored view, you must invert your supplied screen coordinates (`screenXY`) prior to passing them to this function. Parameters ---------- screenXY : array_like X, Y screen coordinate. Must be in units of the window. Returns ------- ndarray Normalized direction vector [x, y, z]. Examples -------- Getting the direction vector between the mouse cursor and the eye:: mx, my = mouse.getPos() dir = win.coordToRay((mx, my)) Set the position of a 3D stimulus object using the mouse, constrained to a plane. The object origin will always be at the screen coordinate of the mouse cursor:: # the eye position in the scene is defined by a rigid body pose win.viewMatrix = camera.getViewMatrix() win.applyEyeTransform() # get the mouse location and calculate the intercept mx, my = mouse.getPos() ray = win.coordToRay([mx, my]) result = intersectRayPlane( # from mathtools orig=camera.pos, dir=camera.transformNormal(ray), planeOrig=(0, 0, -10), planeNormal=(0, 1, 0)) # if result is `None`, there is no intercept if result is not None: pos, dist = result objModel.thePose.pos = pos else: objModel.thePose.pos = (0, 0, -10) # plane origin If you don't define the position of the viewer with a `RigidBodyPose`, you can obtain the appropriate eye position and rotate the ray by doing the following:: pos = numpy.linalg.inv(win.viewMatrix)[:3, 3] ray = win.coordToRay([mx, my]).dot(win.viewMatrix[:3, :3]) # then ... result = intersectRayPlane( orig=pos, dir=ray, planeOrig=(0, 0, -10), planeNormal=(0, 1, 0)) """ # put in units of pixels if self.units == 'pix': scrX, scrY = numpy.asarray(screenXY, numpy.float32) else: scrX, scrY = convertToPix(numpy.asarray([0, 0]), numpy.asarray(screenXY), units=self.units, win=self)[:2] # transform psychopy mouse coordinates to viewport coordinates scrX = scrX + (self.size[0] / 2.) scrY = scrY + (self.size[1] / 2.) # get the NDC coordinates of the projX = 2. * (scrX - self.viewport[0]) / self.viewport[2] - 1. projY = 2. * (scrY - self.viewport[1]) / self.viewport[3] - 1. vecNear = numpy.array((projX, projY, 0., 1.), dtype=numpy.float32) vecFar = numpy.array((projX, projY, 1., 1.), dtype=numpy.float32) # compute the inverse projection matrix invPM = numpy.linalg.inv(self.projectionMatrix) vecNear[:] = vecNear.dot(invPM.T) vecFar[:] = vecFar.dot(invPM.T) vecNear /= vecNear[3] vecFar /= vecFar[3] # direction vector, get rid of `w` dirVec = vecFar[:3] - vecNear[:3] return dirVec / numpy.linalg.norm(dirVec)
[docs] def getMovieFrame(self, buffer='front'): """Capture the current Window as an image. Saves to stack for :py:attr:`~Window.saveMovieFrames()`. As of v1.81.00 this also returns the frame as a PIL image This can be done at any time (usually after a :py:attr:`~Window.flip()` command). Frames are stored in memory until a :py:attr:`~Window.saveMovieFrames()` command is issued. You can issue :py:attr:`~Window.getMovieFrame()` as often as you like and then save them all in one go when finished. The back buffer will return the frame that hasn't yet been 'flipped' to be visible on screen but has the advantage that the mouse and any other overlapping windows won't get in the way. The default front buffer is to be called immediately after a :py:attr:`~Window.flip()` and gives a complete copy of the screen at the window's coordinates. Parameters ---------- buffer : str, optional Buffer to capture. Returns ------- Image Buffer pixel contents as a PIL/Pillow image object. """ im = self._getFrame(buffer=buffer) self.movieFrames.append(im) return im
def _getFrame(self, rect=None, buffer='front'): """Return the current Window as an image. """ # GL.glLoadIdentity() # do the reading of the pixels if buffer == 'back' and self.useFBO: GL.glReadBuffer(GL.GL_COLOR_ATTACHMENT0_EXT) elif buffer == 'back': GL.glReadBuffer(GL.GL_BACK) elif buffer == 'front': if self.useFBO: GL.glBindFramebufferEXT(GL.GL_FRAMEBUFFER_EXT, 0) GL.glReadBuffer(GL.GL_FRONT) else: raise ValueError("Requested read from buffer '{}' but should be " "'front' or 'back'".format(buffer)) if rect: x, y = self.size # of window, not image imType = 'RGBA' # not tested with anything else # box corners in pix left = int((rect[0] / 2. + 0.5) * x) top = int((rect[1] / -2. + 0.5) * y) w = int((rect[2] / 2. + 0.5) * x) - left h = int((rect[3] / -2. + 0.5) * y) - top else: left = top = 0 w, h = self.size # http://www.opengl.org/sdk/docs/man/xhtml/glGetTexImage.xml bufferDat = (GL.GLubyte * (4 * w * h))() GL.glReadPixels(left, top, w, h, GL.GL_RGBA, GL.GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, bufferDat) try: im = Image.fromstring(mode='RGBA', size=(w, h), data=bufferDat) except Exception: im = Image.frombytes(mode='RGBA', size=(w, h), data=bufferDat) im = im.transpose(Image.FLIP_TOP_BOTTOM) im = im.convert('RGB') if self.useFBO and buffer == 'front': GL.glBindFramebufferEXT(GL.GL_FRAMEBUFFER_EXT, self.frameBuffer) return im
[docs] def saveMovieFrames(self, fileName, codec='libx264', fps=30, clearFrames=True): """Writes any captured frames to disk. Will write any format that is understood by PIL (tif, jpg, png, ...) Parameters ---------- filename : str Name of file, including path. The extension at the end of the file determines the type of file(s) created. If an image type (e.g. .png) is given, then multiple static frames are created. If it is .gif then an animated GIF image is created (although you will get higher quality GIF by saving PNG files and then combining them in dedicated image manipulation software, such as GIMP). On Windows and Linux `.mpeg` files can be created if `pymedia` is installed. On macOS `.mov` files can be created if the pyobjc-frameworks-QTKit is installed. Unfortunately the libs used for movie generation can be flaky and poor quality. As for animated GIFs, better results can be achieved by saving as individual .png frames and then combining them into a movie using software like ffmpeg. codec : str, optional The codec to be used **by moviepy** for mp4/mpg/mov files. If `None` then the default will depend on file extension. Can be one of ``libx264``, ``mpeg4`` for mp4/mov files. Can be ``rawvideo``, ``png`` for avi files (not recommended). Can be ``libvorbis`` for ogv files. Default is ``libx264``. fps : int, optional The frame rate to be used throughout the movie. **Only for quicktime (.mov) movies.**. Default is `30`. clearFrames : bool, optional Set this to `False` if you want the frames to be kept for additional calls to ``saveMovieFrames``. Default is `True`. Examples -------- Writes a series of static frames as frame001.tif, frame002.tif etc.:: myWin.saveMovieFrames('frame.tif') As of PsychoPy 1.84.1 the following are written with moviepy:: myWin.saveMovieFrames('stimuli.mp4') # codec = 'libx264' or 'mpeg4' myWin.saveMovieFrames('stimuli.mov') myWin.saveMovieFrames('stimuli.gif') """ fileRoot, fileExt = os.path.splitext(fileName) fileExt = fileExt.lower() # easier than testing both later if len(self.movieFrames) == 0: logging.error('no frames to write - did you forget to update ' 'your window or call win.getMovieFrame()?') return else: logging.info('Writing %i frames to %s' % (len(self.movieFrames), fileName)) if fileExt in ['.gif', '.mpg', '.mpeg', '.mp4', '.mov']: # lazy loading of moviepy.editor (rarely needed) from moviepy.editor import ImageSequenceClip # save variety of movies with moviepy numpyFrames = [] for frame in self.movieFrames: numpyFrames.append(numpy.array(frame)) clip = ImageSequenceClip(numpyFrames, fps=fps) if fileExt == '.gif': clip.write_gif(fileName, fps=fps, fuzz=0, opt='nq') else: clip.write_videofile(fileName, codec=codec) elif len(self.movieFrames) == 1: # save an image using pillow self.movieFrames[0].save(fileName) else: frmc = numpy.ceil(numpy.log10(len(self.movieFrames) + 1)) frame_name_format = "%s%%0%dd%s" % (fileRoot, frmc, fileExt) for frameN, thisFrame in enumerate(self.movieFrames): thisFileName = frame_name_format % (frameN + 1,) thisFrame.save(thisFileName) if clearFrames: self.movieFrames = []
def _getRegionOfFrame(self, rect=(-1, 1, 1, -1), buffer='front', power2=False, squarePower2=False): """Deprecated function, here for historical reasons. You may now use `:py:attr:`~Window._getFrame()` and specify a rect to get a sub-region, just as used here. power2 can be useful with older OpenGL versions to avoid interpolation in :py:attr:`PatchStim`. If power2 or squarePower2, it will expand rect dimensions up to next power of two. squarePower2 uses the max dimensions. You need to check what your hardware & OpenGL supports, and call :py:attr:`~Window._getRegionOfFrame()` as appropriate. """ # Ideally: rewrite using GL frame buffer object; glReadPixels == slow region = self._getFrame(rect=rect, buffer=buffer) if power2 or squarePower2: # use to avoid interpolation in PatchStim if squarePower2: maxsize = max(region.size) xPowerOf2 = int(2**numpy.ceil(numpy.log2(maxsize))) yPowerOf2 = xPowerOf2 else: xPowerOf2 = int(2**numpy.ceil(numpy.log2(region.size[0]))) yPowerOf2 = int(2**numpy.ceil(numpy.log2(region.size[1]))) imP2 = Image.new('RGBA', (xPowerOf2, yPowerOf2)) # paste centered imP2.paste(region, (int(xPowerOf2 / 2. - region.size[0] / 2.), int(yPowerOf2 / 2.) - region.size[1] / 2)) region = imP2 return region
[docs] def close(self): """Close the window (and reset the Bits++ if necess). """ self._closed = True self.backend.close() # moved here, dereferencing the window prevents # backend specific actions to take place try: openWindows.remove(self) except Exception: pass try: self.mouseVisible = True except Exception: # can cause unimportant "'NoneType' object is not callable" pass try: if self.bits is not None: self.bits.reset() except Exception: pass try: logging.flush() except Exception: pass
[docs] def fps(self): """Report the frames per second since the last call to this function (or since the window was created if this is first call)""" fps = self.frames / self.frameClock.getTime() self.frameClock.reset() self.frames = 0 return fps
@property def depthTest(self): """`True` if depth testing is enabled.""" return self._depthTest @depthTest.setter def depthTest(self, value): if value is True: GL.glEnable(GL.GL_DEPTH_TEST) elif value is False: GL.glDisable(GL.GL_DEPTH_TEST) else: raise TypeError("Value must be boolean.") self._depthTest = value @property def depthFunc(self): """Depth test comparison function for rendering.""" return self._depthFunc @depthFunc.setter def depthFunc(self, value): depthFuncs = {'never': GL.GL_NEVER, 'less': GL.GL_LESS, 'equal': GL.GL_EQUAL, 'lequal': GL.GL_LEQUAL, 'greater': GL.GL_GREATER, 'notequal': GL.GL_NOTEQUAL, 'gequal': GL.GL_GEQUAL, 'always': GL.GL_ALWAYS} GL.glDepthFunc(depthFuncs[value]) self._depthFunc = value @property def depthMask(self): """`True` if depth masking is enabled. Writing to the depth buffer will be disabled. """ return self._depthMask @depthMask.setter def depthMask(self, value): if value is True: GL.glDepthMask(GL.GL_TRUE) elif value is False: GL.glDepthMask(GL.GL_FALSE) else: raise TypeError("Value must be boolean.") self._depthMask = value @property def cullFaceMode(self): """Face culling mode, either `back`, `front` or `both`.""" return self._cullFaceMode @cullFaceMode.setter def cullFaceMode(self, value): if value == 'back': GL.glCullFace(GL.GL_BACK) elif value == 'front': GL.glCullFace(GL.GL_FRONT) elif value == 'both': GL.glCullFace(GL.GL_FRONT_AND_BACK) else: raise ValueError('Invalid face cull mode.') self._cullFaceMode = value @property def cullFace(self): """`True` if face culling is enabled.`""" return self._cullFace @cullFace.setter def cullFace(self, value): if value is True: GL.glEnable(GL.GL_CULL_FACE) elif value is False: GL.glDisable(GL.GL_CULL_FACE) else: raise TypeError('Value must be type `bool`.') self._cullFace = value @property def frontFace(self): """Face winding order to define front, either `ccw` or `cw`.""" return self._frontFace @frontFace.setter def frontFace(self, value): if value == 'ccw': GL.glFrontFace(GL.GL_CCW) elif value == 'cw': GL.glFrontFace(GL.GL_CW) else: raise ValueError('Invalid value, must be `ccw` or `cw`.') self._frontFace = value @property def draw3d(self): """`True` if 3D drawing is enabled on this window.""" return self._draw3d @draw3d.setter def draw3d(self, value): if value is True: if self.depthMask is False: self.depthMask = True if self.depthTest is False: self.depthTest = True if self.cullFace is False: self.cullFace = True elif value is False: if self.depthMask is True: self.depthMask = False if self.depthTest is True: self.depthTest = False if self.cullFace is True: self.cullFace = False else: raise TypeError('Value must be type `bool`.') self._draw3d = value @attributeSetter def blendMode(self, blendMode): """Blend mode to use.""" self.__dict__['blendMode'] = blendMode if blendMode == 'avg': GL.glBlendFunc(GL.GL_SRC_ALPHA, GL.GL_ONE_MINUS_SRC_ALPHA) if hasattr(self, '_shaders'): self._progSignedFrag = self._shaders['signedColor'] self._progSignedTex = self._shaders['signedTex'] self._progSignedTexMask = self._shaders['signedTexMask'] self._progSignedTexMask1D = self._shaders['signedTexMask1D'] self._progImageStim = self._shaders['imageStim'] elif blendMode == 'add': GL.glBlendFunc(GL.GL_SRC_ALPHA, GL.GL_ONE) if hasattr(self, '_shaders'): self._progSignedFrag = self._shaders['signedColor_adding'] self._progSignedTex = self._shaders['signedTex_adding'] self._progSignedTexMask = self._shaders['signedTexMask_adding'] tmp = self._shaders['signedTexMask1D_adding'] self._progSignedTexMask1D = tmp self._progImageStim = self._shaders['imageStim_adding'] else: raise ValueError("Window blendMode should be set to 'avg' or 'add'" " but we received the value {}" .format(repr(blendMode))) def setBlendMode(self, blendMode, log=None): """Usually you can use 'stim.attribute = value' syntax instead, but use this method if you need to suppress the log message. """ setAttribute(self, 'blendMode', blendMode, log) @attributeSetter def color(self, color): """Set the color of the window. This command sets the color that the blank screen will have on the next clear operation. As a result it effectively takes TWO :py:attr:`~Window.flip()` operations to become visible (the first uses the color to create the new screen, the second presents that screen to the viewer). For this reason, if you want to changed background color of the window "on the fly", it might be a better idea to draw a :py:attr:`Rect` that fills the whole window with the desired :py:attr:`Rect.fillColor` attribute. That'll show up on first flip. See other stimuli (e.g. :py:attr:`GratingStim.color`) for more info on the color attribute which essentially works the same on all PsychoPy stimuli. See :ref:`colorspaces` for further information about the ways to specify colors and their various implications. """ self.setColor(color) @attributeSetter def colorSpace(self, colorSpace): """Documentation for colorSpace is in the stimuli. e.g. :py:attr:`GratingStim.colorSpace` Usually used in conjunction with ``color`` like this:: win.colorSpace = 'rgb255' # changes colorSpace but not # the value of win.color win.color = [0, 0, 255] # clear blue in rgb255 See :ref:`colorspaces` for further information about the ways to specify colors and their various implications. """ self.__dict__['colorSpace'] = colorSpace def setColor(self, color, colorSpace=None, operation='', log=None): """Usually you can use ``stim.attribute = value`` syntax instead, but use this method if you want to set color and colorSpace simultaneously. See :py:attr:`~Window.color` for documentation on colors. """ # Set color setColor(self, color, colorSpace=colorSpace, operation=operation, rgbAttrib='rgb', # or 'fillRGB' etc colorAttrib='color') # These spaces are 0-centred if self.colorSpace in ['rgb', 'dkl', 'lms', 'hsv']: # RGB in range 0:1 and scaled for contrast desiredRGB = (self.rgb + 1) / 2.0 # rgb255 and named are not... elif self.colorSpace in ['rgb255', 'named']: desiredRGB = self.rgb / 255.0 elif self.colorSpace in ['hex']: desiredRGB = [rgbs/255.0 for rgbs in colors.hex2rgb255(color)] else: # some array / numeric stuff msg = 'invalid value %r for Window.colorSpace' raise ValueError(msg % colorSpace) # if it is None then this will be done during window setup if self.backend is not None: self.backend.setCurrent() # make sure this window is active GL.glClearColor(desiredRGB[0], desiredRGB[1], desiredRGB[2], 1.0) def setRGB(self, newRGB): """Deprecated: As of v1.61.00 please use `setColor()` instead """ global GL self.rgb = val2array(newRGB, False, length=3) if self.winType == 'pyglet' and globalVars.currWindow != self: self.winHandle.switch_to() globalVars.currWindow = self GL.glClearColor(((self.rgb[0] + 1.0) / 2.0), ((self.rgb[1] + 1.0) / 2.0), ((self.rgb[2] + 1.0) / 2.0), 1.0) def _setupGamma(self, gammaVal): """A private method to work out how to handle gamma for this Window given that the user might have specified an explicit value, or maybe gave a Monitor. """ # determine which gamma value to use (or native ramp) if gammaVal is not None: self._checkGamma() self.useNativeGamma = False elif not self.monitor.gammaIsDefault(): if self.monitor.getGamma() is not None: self.__dict__['gamma'] = self.monitor.getGamma() self.useNativeGamma = False else: self.__dict__['gamma'] = None # gamma wasn't set anywhere self.useNativeGamma = True # then try setting it if self.useNativeGamma: if self.autoLog: logging.info('Using gamma table of operating system') else: if self.autoLog: logging.info('Using gamma: self.gamma' + str(self.gamma)) self.gamma = gammaVal # using either pygame or bits++ @attributeSetter def gamma(self, gamma): """Set the monitor gamma for linearization. Warnings -------- Don't use this if using a Bits++ or Bits#, as it overrides monitor settings. """ self._checkGamma(gamma) if self.bits is not None: msg = ("Do not use try to set the gamma of a window with " "Bits++/Bits# enabled. It was ambiguous what should " "happen. Use the setGamma() function of the bits box " "instead") raise DeprecationWarning(msg) self.backend.gamma = self.__dict__['gamma'] def setGamma(self, gamma, log=None): """Usually you can use 'stim.attribute = value' syntax instead, but use this method if you need to suppress the log message. """ setAttribute(self, 'gamma', gamma, log) @attributeSetter def gammaRamp(self, newRamp): """Sets the hardware CLUT using a specified 3xN array of floats ranging between 0.0 and 1.0. Array must have a number of rows equal to 2 ^ max(bpc). """ self.backend.gammaRamp = newRamp def _checkGamma(self, gamma=None): if gamma is None: gamma = self.gamma if isinstance(gamma, (float, int)): self.__dict__['gamma'] = [gamma] * 3 elif hasattr(gamma, '__iter__'): self.__dict__['gamma'] = gamma else: raise ValueError('gamma must be a numeric scalar or iterable') def setScale(self, units, font='dummyFont', prevScale=(1.0, 1.0)): """DEPRECATED: this method used to be used to switch between units for stimulus drawing but this is now handled by the stimuli themselves and the window should always be left in units of 'pix' """ if self.useRetina: retinaScale = 2.0 else: retinaScale = 1.0 # then unit-specific changes if units == "norm": thisScale = numpy.array([1.0, 1.0]) elif units == "height": thisScale = numpy.array([2.0 * self.size[1] / self.size[0], 2.0]) elif units in ["pix", "pixels"]: thisScale = 2.0 / numpy.array(self.size) * retinaScale elif units == "cm": # windowPerCM = windowPerPIX / CMperPIX # = (window/winPIX) / (scrCm/scrPIX) if self.scrWidthCM in [0, None] or self.scrWidthPIX in [0, None]: logging.error('you did not give the width of the screen (pixels' ' and cm). Check settings in MonitorCentre.') core.wait(1.0) core.quit() thisScale = ((numpy.array([2.0, 2.0]) / self.size * retinaScale) / (self.scrWidthCM / self.scrWidthPIX)) elif units in ["deg", "degs"]: # windowPerDeg = winPerCM * CMperDEG # = winPerCM * tan(pi/180) * distance if ((self.scrWidthCM in [0, None]) or (self.scrWidthPIX in [0, None])): logging.error('you did not give the width of the screen (pixels' ' and cm). Check settings in MonitorCentre.') core.wait(1.0) core.quit() cmScale = ((numpy.array([2.0, 2.0]) / self.size) * retinaScale / (self.scrWidthCM / self.scrWidthPIX)) thisScale = cmScale * 0.017455 * self.scrDistCM elif units == "stroke_font": lw = 2 * font.letterWidth thisScale = numpy.array([lw, lw] / self.size * retinaScale / 38.0) # actually set the scale as appropriate # allows undoing of a previous scaling procedure thisScale = thisScale / numpy.asarray(prevScale) GL.glScalef(thisScale[0], thisScale[1], 1.0) return thisScale def _checkMatchingSizes(self, requested, actual): """Checks whether the requested and actual screen sizes differ. If not then a warning is output and the window size is set to actual """ if list(requested) != list(actual): logging.warning("User requested fullscreen with size %s, " "but screen is actually %s. Using actual size" % (requested, actual)) self.clientSize = numpy.array(actual)
[docs] def _setupGL(self): """Setup OpenGL state for this window. """ # setup screen color self.color = self.color # call attributeSetter GL.glClearDepth(1.0) # viewport or drawable area of the framebuffer self.viewport = self.scissor = \ (0, 0, self.frameBufferSize[0], self.frameBufferSize[1]) self.scissorTest = True self.stencilTest = False GL.glMatrixMode(GL.GL_PROJECTION) # Reset the projection matrix GL.glLoadIdentity() GL.gluOrtho2D(-1, 1, -1, 1) GL.glMatrixMode(GL.GL_MODELVIEW) # Reset the modelview matrix GL.glLoadIdentity() self.depthTest = False # GL.glEnable(GL.GL_DEPTH_TEST) # Enables Depth Testing # GL.glDepthFunc(GL.GL_LESS) # The Type Of Depth Test To Do GL.glEnable(GL.GL_BLEND) GL.glShadeModel(GL.GL_SMOOTH) # Color Shading (FLAT or SMOOTH) GL.glEnable(GL.GL_POINT_SMOOTH) # check for GL_ARB_texture_float # (which is needed for shaders to be useful) # this needs to be done AFTER the context has been created if not GL.gl_info.have_extension('GL_ARB_texture_float'): self._haveShaders = False GL.glClear(GL.GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT) # identify gfx card vendor self.glVendor = GL.gl_info.get_vendor().lower() requestedFBO = self.useFBO if self._haveShaders: # do this after setting up FrameBufferObject self._setupShaders() else: self.useFBO = False if self.useFBO: success = self._setupFrameBuffer() if not success: self.useFBO = False if requestedFBO and not self.useFBO: logging.warning("Framebuffer object (FBO) not supported on " "this graphics card") if self.blendMode == 'add' and not self.useFBO: logging.warning("Framebuffer object (FBO) is required for " "blendMode='add'. Reverting to blendMode='avg'") self.blendMode = 'avg'
def _setupShaders(self): self._progSignedTexFont = _shaders.compileProgram( _shaders.vertSimple, _shaders.fragSignedColorTexFont) self._progFBOtoFrame = _shaders.compileProgram( _shaders.vertSimple, _shaders.fragFBOtoFrame) self._shaders = {} self._shaders['signedColor'] = _shaders.compileProgram( _shaders.vertSimple, _shaders.fragSignedColor) self._shaders['signedColor_adding'] = _shaders.compileProgram( _shaders.vertSimple, _shaders.fragSignedColor_adding) self._shaders['signedTex'] = _shaders.compileProgram( _shaders.vertSimple, _shaders.fragSignedColorTex) self._shaders['signedTexMask'] = _shaders.compileProgram( _shaders.vertSimple, _shaders.fragSignedColorTexMask) self._shaders['signedTexMask1D'] = _shaders.compileProgram( _shaders.vertSimple, _shaders.fragSignedColorTexMask1D) self._shaders['signedTex_adding'] = _shaders.compileProgram( _shaders.vertSimple, _shaders.fragSignedColorTex_adding) self._shaders['signedTexMask_adding'] = _shaders.compileProgram( _shaders.vertSimple, _shaders.fragSignedColorTexMask_adding) self._shaders['signedTexMask1D_adding'] = _shaders.compileProgram( _shaders.vertSimple, _shaders.fragSignedColorTexMask1D_adding) self._shaders['imageStim'] = _shaders.compileProgram( _shaders.vertSimple, _shaders.fragImageStim) self._shaders['imageStim_adding'] = _shaders.compileProgram( _shaders.vertSimple, _shaders.fragImageStim_adding) self._shaders['stim3d_phong'] = {} # Create shader flags, these are used as keys to pick the appropriate # shader for the given material and lighting configuration. shaderFlags = [] for i in range(0, 8 + 1): for j in product((True, False), repeat=1): shaderFlags.append((i, j[0])) # Compile shaders based on generated flags. for flag in shaderFlags: # Define GLSL preprocessor values to enable code paths for specific # material properties. srcDefs = {'MAX_LIGHTS': flag[0]} if flag[1]: # has diffuse texture map srcDefs['DIFFUSE_TEXTURE'] = 1 # embed #DEFINE statements in GLSL source code vertSrc = gltools.embedShaderSourceDefs( _shaders.vertPhongLighting, srcDefs) fragSrc = gltools.embedShaderSourceDefs( _shaders.fragPhongLighting, srcDefs) # build a shader program prog = gltools.createProgramObjectARB() vertexShader = gltools.compileShaderObjectARB( vertSrc, GL.GL_VERTEX_SHADER_ARB) fragmentShader = gltools.compileShaderObjectARB( fragSrc, GL.GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER_ARB) gltools.attachObjectARB(prog, vertexShader) gltools.attachObjectARB(prog, fragmentShader) gltools.linkProgramObjectARB(prog) gltools.detachObjectARB(prog, vertexShader) gltools.detachObjectARB(prog, fragmentShader) gltools.deleteObjectARB(vertexShader) gltools.deleteObjectARB(fragmentShader) # set the flag self._shaders['stim3d_phong'][flag] = prog def _setupFrameBuffer(self): # Setup framebuffer self.frameBuffer = GL.GLuint() GL.glGenFramebuffersEXT(1, ctypes.byref(self.frameBuffer)) GL.glBindFramebufferEXT(GL.GL_FRAMEBUFFER_EXT, self.frameBuffer) # Create texture to render to self.frameTexture = GL.GLuint() GL.glGenTextures(1, ctypes.byref(self.frameTexture)) GL.glBindTexture(GL.GL_TEXTURE_2D, self.frameTexture) GL.glTexParameteri(GL.GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL.GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL.GL_LINEAR) GL.glTexParameteri(GL.GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL.GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL.GL_LINEAR) GL.glTexImage2D(GL.GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, GL.GL_RGBA32F_ARB, int(self.size[0]), int(self.size[1]), 0, GL.GL_RGBA, GL.GL_FLOAT, None) # attach texture to the frame buffer GL.glFramebufferTexture2DEXT(GL.GL_FRAMEBUFFER_EXT, GL.GL_COLOR_ATTACHMENT0_EXT, GL.GL_TEXTURE_2D, self.frameTexture, 0) # add a stencil buffer self._stencilTexture = GL.GLuint() GL.glGenRenderbuffersEXT(1, ctypes.byref( self._stencilTexture)) # like glGenTextures GL.glBindRenderbufferEXT(GL.GL_RENDERBUFFER_EXT, self._stencilTexture) GL.glRenderbufferStorageEXT(GL.GL_RENDERBUFFER_EXT, GL.GL_DEPTH24_STENCIL8_EXT, int(self.size[0]), int(self.size[1])) GL.glFramebufferRenderbufferEXT(GL.GL_FRAMEBUFFER_EXT, GL.GL_DEPTH_ATTACHMENT_EXT, GL.GL_RENDERBUFFER_EXT, self._stencilTexture) GL.glFramebufferRenderbufferEXT(GL.GL_FRAMEBUFFER_EXT, GL.GL_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT_EXT, GL.GL_RENDERBUFFER_EXT, self._stencilTexture) status = GL.glCheckFramebufferStatusEXT(GL.GL_FRAMEBUFFER_EXT) if status != GL.GL_FRAMEBUFFER_COMPLETE_EXT: logging.error("Error in framebuffer activation") # UNBIND THE FRAME BUFFER OBJECT THAT WE HAD CREATED GL.glBindFramebufferEXT(GL.GL_FRAMEBUFFER_EXT, 0) return False GL.glDisable(GL.GL_TEXTURE_2D) # clear the buffers (otherwise the texture memory can contain # junk from other app) GL.glClear(GL.GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT) GL.glClear(GL.GL_STENCIL_BUFFER_BIT) GL.glClear(GL.GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT) return True @attributeSetter def mouseVisible(self, visibility): """Sets the visibility of the mouse cursor. If Window was initialized with ``allowGUI=False`` then the mouse is initially set to invisible, otherwise it will initially be visible. Usage:: win.mouseVisible = False win.mouseVisible = True """ self.backend.setMouseVisibility(visibility) self.__dict__['mouseVisible'] = visibility def setMouseVisible(self, visibility, log=None): """Usually you can use 'stim.attribute = value' syntax instead, but use this method if you need to suppress the log message.""" setAttribute(self, 'mouseVisible', visibility, log)
[docs] def setMouseType(self, name='arrow'): """Change the appearance of the cursor for this window. Cursor types provide contextual hints about how to interact with on-screen objects. The graphics used 'standard cursors' provided by the operating system. They may vary in appearance and hot spot location across platforms. The following names are valid on most platforms: * ``arrow`` : Default pointer. * ``ibeam`` : Indicates text can be edited. * ``crosshair`` : Crosshair with hot-spot at center. * ``hand`` : A pointing hand. * ``hresize`` : Double arrows pointing horizontally. * ``vresize`` : Double arrows pointing vertically. Parameters ---------- name : str Type of standard cursor to use (see above). Default is ``arrow``. Notes ----- * On Windows the ``crosshair`` option is negated with the background color. It will not be visible when placed over 50% grey fields. """ if hasattr(self.backend, "setMouseType"): self.backend.setMouseType(name)
[docs] def getActualFrameRate(self, nIdentical=10, nMaxFrames=100, nWarmUpFrames=10, threshold=1): """Measures the actual frames-per-second (FPS) for the screen. This is done by waiting (for a max of `nMaxFrames`) until `nIdentical` frames in a row have identical frame times (std dev below `threshold` ms). Parameters ---------- nIdentical : int, optional The number of consecutive frames that will be evaluated. Higher --> greater precision. Lower --> faster. nMaxFrames : int, optional The maximum number of frames to wait for a matching set of nIdentical. nWarmUpFrames : int, optional The number of frames to display before starting the test (this is in place to allow the system to settle after opening the `Window` for the first time. threshold : int, optional The threshold for the std deviation (in ms) before the set are considered a match. Returns ------- float or None Frame rate (FPS) in seconds. If there is no such sequence of identical frames a warning is logged and `None` will be returned. """ if nIdentical > nMaxFrames: raise ValueError('nIdentical must be equal to or ' 'less than nMaxFrames') recordFrmIntsOrig = self.recordFrameIntervals # run warm-ups self.recordFrameIntervals = False for frameN in range(nWarmUpFrames): self.flip() # run test frames self.recordFrameIntervals = True for frameN in range(nMaxFrames): self.flip() if (len(self.frameIntervals) >= nIdentical and (numpy.std(self.frameIntervals[-nIdentical:]) < (threshold / 1000.0))): rate = 1.0 / numpy.mean(self.frameIntervals[-nIdentical:]) if self.screen is None: scrStr = "" else: scrStr = " (%i)" % self.screen if self.autoLog: msg = 'Screen%s actual frame rate measured at %.2f' logging.debug(msg % (scrStr, rate)) self.recordFrameIntervals = recordFrmIntsOrig self.frameIntervals = [] return rate # if we got here we reached end of maxFrames with no consistent value msg = ("Couldn't measure a consistent frame rate.\n" " - Is your graphics card set to sync to vertical blank?\n" " - Are you running other processes on your computer?\n") logging.warning(msg) return None
[docs] def getMsPerFrame(self, nFrames=60, showVisual=False, msg='', msDelay=0.): """Assesses the monitor refresh rate (average, median, SD) under current conditions, over at least 60 frames. Records time for each refresh (frame) for n frames (at least 60), while displaying an optional visual. The visual is just eye-candy to show that something is happening when assessing many frames. You can also give it text to display instead of a visual, e.g., ``msg='(testing refresh rate...)'``; setting msg implies ``showVisual == False``. To simulate refresh rate under cpu load, you can specify a time to wait within the loop prior to doing the :py:attr:`~Window.flip()`. If 0 < msDelay < 100, wait for that long in ms. Returns timing stats (in ms) of: - average time per frame, for all frames - standard deviation of all frames - median, as the average of 12 frame times around the median (~monitor refresh rate) :Author: - 2010 written by Jeremy Gray """ # lower bound of 60 samples--need enough to estimate the SD nFrames = max(60, nFrames) num2avg = 12 # how many to average from around the median if len(msg): showVisual = False showText = True myMsg = TextStim(self, text=msg, italic=True, color=(.7, .6, .5), colorSpace='rgb', height=0.1, autoLog=False) else: showText = False if showVisual: x, y = self.size myStim = GratingStim(self, tex='sin', mask='gauss', size=[.6 * y / float(x), .6], sf=3.0, opacity=.2, autoLog=False) clockt = [] # clock times # end of drawing time, in clock time units, # for testing how long myStim.draw() takes drawt = [] if msDelay > 0 and msDelay < 100: doWait = True delayTime = msDelay / 1000. # sec else: doWait = False winUnitsSaved = self.units # norm is required for the visual (or text) display, as coded below self.units = 'norm' # accumulate secs per frame (and time-to-draw) for a bunch of frames: rush(True) for i in range(5): # wake everybody up self.flip() for i in range(nFrames): # ... and go for real this time clockt.append(core.getTime()) if showVisual: myStim.setPhase(1.0 / nFrames, '+', log=False) myStim.setSF(3. / nFrames, '+', log=False) myStim.setOri(12. / nFrames, '+', log=False) myStim.setOpacity(.9 / nFrames, '+', log=False) myStim.draw() elif showText: myMsg.draw() if doWait: core.wait(delayTime) drawt.append(core.getTime()) self.flip() rush(False) self.units = winUnitsSaved # restore frameTimes = [(clockt[i] - clockt[i - 1]) for i in range(1, len(clockt))] drawTimes = [(drawt[i] - clockt[i]) for i in range(len(clockt))] # == drawing only freeTimes = [frameTimes[i] - drawTimes[i] for i in range(len(frameTimes))] # == unused time # cast to float so that the resulting type == type(0.123) # for median frameTimes.sort() # median-most slice msPFmed = 1000. * float(numpy.average( frameTimes[((nFrames - num2avg) // 2):((nFrames + num2avg) // 2)])) msPFavg = 1000. * float(numpy.average(frameTimes)) msPFstd = 1000. * float(numpy.std(frameTimes)) msdrawAvg = 1000. * float(numpy.average(drawTimes)) msdrawSD = 1000. * float(numpy.std(drawTimes)) msfree = 1000. * float(numpy.average(freeTimes)) return msPFavg, msPFstd, msPFmed # msdrawAvg, msdrawSD, msfree
def _startOfFlip(self): """Custom hardware classes may want to prevent flipping from occurring and can override this method as needed. Return `True` to indicate hardware flip. """ return True def _renderFBO(self): """Perform a warp operation. (in this case a copy operation without any warping) """ GL.glBegin(GL.GL_QUADS) GL.glTexCoord2f(0.0, 0.0) GL.glVertex2f(-1.0, -1.0) GL.glTexCoord2f(0.0, 1.0) GL.glVertex2f(-1.0, 1.0) GL.glTexCoord2f(1.0, 1.0) GL.glVertex2f(1.0, 1.0) GL.glTexCoord2f(1.0, 0.0) GL.glVertex2f(1.0, -1.0) GL.glEnd() def _prepareFBOrender(self): GL.glUseProgram(self._progFBOtoFrame) def _finishFBOrender(self): GL.glUseProgram(0) def _afterFBOrender(self): pass def _endOfFlip(self, clearBuffer): """Override end of flip with custom color channel masking if required. """ if clearBuffer: GL.glClear(GL.GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT)
def getMsPerFrame(myWin, nFrames=60, showVisual=False, msg='', msDelay=0.): """ Deprecated: please use the getMsPerFrame method in the `psychopy.visual.Window` class. Assesses the monitor refresh rate (average, median, SD) under current conditions, over at least 60 frames. Records time for each refresh (frame) for n frames (at least 60), while displaying an optional visual. The visual is just eye-candy to show that something is happening when assessing many frames. You can also give it text to display instead of a visual, e.g., msg='(testing refresh rate...)'; setting msg implies showVisual == False. To simulate refresh rate under cpu load, you can specify a time to wait within the loop prior to doing the win.flip(). If 0 < msDelay < 100, wait for that long in ms. Returns timing stats (in ms) of: - average time per frame, for all frames - standard deviation of all frames - median, as the average of 12 frame times around the median (~monitor refresh rate) :Author: - 2010 written by Jeremy Gray """ return myWin.getMsPerFrame(nFrames=60, showVisual=showVisual, msg=msg, msDelay=0.)

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